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Vishay Precision Group (VPG) Introduces 60 W, 0.05 ppm/°C TCR Resistors for High-End Audio Applications
New Devices Enable Substantial Sound Quality Improvements
MALVERN, PENNSYLVANIA — Jan. 10, 2011 — Vishay Precision Group, Inc. (NYSE: VPG) today announced that its Vishay Foil Resistors division is expanding its offering for high-end audio applications with the release of the enhanced ultra-high-precision Z-Foil VAR, in addition to a new generation of Foil power current sensing resistors. Based on Bulk Metal Foil® technology, the devices released today have been specifically designed to minimize the self-inductance and capacitance inherent in all resistors, offering improvements in sound quality by reducing audible distortion. With power ratings as high as 60 W, the devices are optimized for use in loudspeaker crossover assemblies, audio power amplifiers, and instrumentation amplifiers.
Vishay Audio Resistor, (VAR)
Vishay Foil Resistors has enhanced the ultra-high-precision Z-Foil VAR resistor to offer low TCR down to 0.05 ppm/°C typical from 0°C to +60°C, +25°C ref, tolerances down to ±0.005%, and load-life stability to ±0.005% (50 ppm) at +70°C for 2,000 hours at rated power. The device has been bolstered with a thermal stabilization time of <1 s (nominal value achieved within 10 ppm of steady state value) and can operate at higher frequencies.
The VAR provides a combination of low noise, low inductance/capacitance, and improved thermal response, making it unrivalled for applications requiring distortion-free properties. Its special “naked Z-foil resistor” design, without molding or encapsulation, adds an additional dimension for reducing signal distortion and increasing clarity in signal processing.
The VAR has a low thermal EMF, which is directly attributable to the special design of the device. Thermal EMF results from the thermocouple effect which exists between dissimilar metals. Under normal conditions when both leads have the same temperature, the voltage generated in the contact between resistive element and one lead is cancelled by that of an equal level and opposite polarity in the contact between resistive element and other lead. When a temperature differential exists between the two leads, a voltage difference will occur between them.
Audiophiles have long used the VAR series of resistors in their high-end audio equipment because of their extraordinary distortion-free fidelity in signal paths. The new enhancements listed above extend their performance to new levels of precision in signal processing.
New-Generation Power Current Sensing Resistors
While the VAR resistor is designed for signal processing, the same bulk metal foil resistor has been further expanded to provide high-current, high-power models for other audio applications. These are available from Vishay Foil Resistors as custom tailored products. For precise current measuring in audio applications, the new generation of foil power current sensing resistors combines very low noise with an absolute TCR of less than ±0.2 ppm/ºC (0°C to +60°C, or +20°C to +70°C), power TCR of less than 1 ppm/W, with an absolute tolerance of ±0.01%, and a load-life stability of ±0.005% for 2000 hours in free air. The devices offer a special construction that reduces thermal distortion. The new devices are offered in a number of configurations and power levels that best match each customer’s requirements. Consult Vishay Precision Group’s Applications Engineering for the best match to your individual application.
The resistors feature a power rating of 20 W in free air (60 W on heat sink) over a resistance range from 0.5 mΩ to 500 Ω. The maximum current for resistance values 10 mΩ and up is 22 A. Higher current values are available per customer requirements if needed. Thermal resistance (element to heat sink) for the resistors is 2°C/ W typical.
The construction of the new resistors can be tailored to the customer’s specifications. Options include the resistor size as well as the size and type of the heat sink (with or without mounting holes). A wide range of resistive elements may be used and different lead diameters are available. The devices may be mounted with screws or bonded with conductive epoxy and clamps.
Audio Applications
The devices released today are characterized by extremely low excess noise when compared to other types of resistors. Additionally, the current in adjacent current-carrying paths runs in opposing directions, cancelling the parasitic inductance of these paths. Also, path-to-path capacitances are connected in series, which has the effect of minimizing the parasitic capacitance of the resistor. These low inductance/capacitance resistors are characterized by non-measurable peak-to-peak signal distortions.
Bulk Metal Foil resistors owe their low excess noise and high linearity to the type of material they are made of: a cold rolled special metal alloy foil with a thickness of several microns. This construction preserves the bulk-metal nature of the resistive element, eliminating any current noise in the element itself and providing the linearity that preserves signal integrity with no clipping or roll-off at signal extremes. These are the same resistor elements used in military and space applications but the un-encapsulated VAR version does not have the damping effect or the slowing effect of shunting capacitance that is unavoidable in encapsulated resistors. Around the world, professional “golden ear” audiophile experts have praised the sound quality of systems using the VAR series over the exact same systems using other precision resistors.
Samples and production quantities of the new and improved resistors are available now, with lead times of five days for samples, and five weeks for standard orders.
Further information about the improved VAR, new current sensing resistors, and other Vishay Foil Resistors products is available at Follow Vishay Foil Resistors at
About Vishay Foil Resistors
Vishay Foil Resistors is a division of Vishay Precision Group, producing the most precise and stable type of resistors available. The portfolio comprises products in a variety of resistor configurations and package types to meet the needs of a wide range of applications: discrete resistors and resistor networks in surface mount and through-hole (leaded) configurations; customized chip resistor networks; precision trimming potentiometers; and discrete chips for use in hybrid circuits. The foil resistors and current sensors are used in applications requiring a high degree of precision and stability, such as in medical testing equipment, high performance audio equipment, precision measuring instruments and aerospace
About Vishay Precision Group
Vishay Precision Group (VPG) produces sensors based on precision resistive foil technology, and sensor-based systems. It provides vertically integrated products and solutions for multiple growing markets in the areas of stress, force, weight, pressure and current measurements. As a spin-off from Vishay Intertechnology, VPG’s decades-long track record encompasses innovations in foil precision resistors, current sensors, and strain gages, which have served as a foundation for VPG’s more recent expansion into strain gage instrumentation, load cells and transducers, weighing modules and complete systems for process control and on-board weighing. Vishay Precision Group may be found on the Internet at